By Estrella Z. Gallardo
The Department of Science and Technology – National Research Council of the Philippines (DOST-NRCP) conducted their Annual Scientific Conference and 86th General Membership Assembly with the theme “Humanizing the Fourth Industrial Revolution on March 11, 2019 at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), Pasay City.
The First Industrial Revolution was based on the introduction of mechanical production equipment driven by water and steam power (the First Mechanical loom, 1784). The Second Industrial Revolution was based on mass production achieved by division of labor concept and the use of electrical energy. (First conveyor belt, Cincinnati Slaughterhouse, 1870.
The Third Industrial Revolution was based on the use of electronics and IT to further automate production (First programmable logic controller (PIC) Modicon 084, 1969. The Fourth Industrial Revolution was based on the use of cyber – physical system (Cyber Physical System internet of things networks), that has reached the Autonomous Robots that started from Simulation, System Integration, Internet of things, Cybersecurity, Cloud Computing Addictive Manufacturing, Augmented Reality and Big Data.
Fourth Industrial Revolution manifests cyber – Physical Systems, Driverless Cars, Smart Robotics, Materials that are lighter and tougher, and a manufacturing process built around 3D printing.
Along with the main technology drivers are emerging technologies on: 1) Internet of Things; 2) Big Data; 3) Nanotechnology; 4) Neurotechnology; 5) Energy Storage; 6) Synthetic Biology; 7) Additive Manufacturing, and 8) Blockchain. These are described as follows:
- Artificial Intelligence is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving.
- Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science, and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
- Internet of Things – the interconnection via the Internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data.
- Big Data – digital data sets that are so large and complex derived from the use of electronic devices, social media, search engines, as well as sensors and tracking devices.
- Nanotechnology – the interconnection via the Internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data.
- Neurotechnology – any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.
- Synthetic biology – is defined as the artificial design and engineering of biological systems and living organisms for purposes of improving applications for industry or biological research.
- Block Chain – Continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography. Each block typically contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp and transaction data. For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks.
However, there are various issues, challenges and realities in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (FIRE) which shows that the Philippines is not yet ready or is unprepared to manage the Fourth Industrial Revolution: 1) low level of readiness in production as manifested in weak performances in terms of technology and innovation, human capital, and institutional framework; 2) lack of proper information and communications technology infrastructure due to the country’s low public investments; 3) lack of qualified teachers as a looming problem in the Philippine education system; 4) inability to equip the workforce for future jobs due to current education models used; 5) lack of science, technology, engineering and mathematics graduates that are employed; 6) weak demand for S & T; 7) Lack of linkages between education and employment whose gap has continued to widen in recent years and some other issues identified by different experts and researchers in the country.
Today, these will not hinder Filipinos in appreciating FIRE because they will definitely have vast opportunities to take part on this industrial revolution, like 1) using robots as coworkers; 2) 3D printing mass produced; 3) AI replacing white collar expertise (apps for doctor); 4) self-driving vehicles on the high ; street; 5) virtual reality as a commercial reality and from augmented reality to mixed reality; 6) renewables and clean energy diversify; 7) meatless meats; 8) commercial drones and UAVs and; 9) online shopping.
This Scientific Conference on Humanizing the Fourth Industrial Revolution (FIRE) will look at what experts say about the prospects, opportunities, and challenges the Philippines faces in the advent of this industrial revolution. With these lighting-fast changes, this conference aims to generate discourse and action focused on how humanity can realize its potential without losing its core and self. It will give some insights to be shared by local and foreign speakers, researchers, engineers, scientists and technology generators and adaptors in the event to be led by National Research Council of the Philippines.
It will include issues on sustainable development, humanity and nature, and future prospects. Moreover, policy directions may be generated towards how FIRE (while it changes meanings, lives, and relationships) can work for humanity’s welfare while powerful emerging innovations unfold and align for the common good.
This document is based on the powerpoint presentations provided by Dr. Argel Bandala and Dr. Ryan Rhay Vicerra to NRCP during the 1026th meeting of the NRCP Governing Board held on 6 February 2019, and the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS), Development Research News, July-September 2018.
Part 2 of the Scientific Conference was the parallel sessions on 1 : Humanizing Industrial Revolution via Industry 3.5 as a Hybrid Strategy to Optimize Human Capital as Force for Good in Business in Emergent Countries by : PROF. CHEN FU CHIEN, Industrial Engineering & Engineering, Management, National Tsing Hua University Taiwan, ROC; 2 : Flying Swarm on FIRE – Creating Disruptive Technologies By: DR. ELMER P. DADIOS, NRCP Member, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research, Professor, Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management De La Salle University; 3: Imagining Policy Making in the Fourth Industrial Revolution By: DR. FIDEL R. NEMENZO, NRCP Member, Division of Mathematical, Sciences, Vice Chancellor for Research and Development, UP Diliman; 4: Dual Use of Science in the Age of FIRE By: DR. RAUL V. DESTURA, Chair, NRCP Division of Medical Sciences, Deputy Executive Director, Philippine Genome Center, Director, National Training Center for Biosafety and Biosecurity, National, Institutes of Health (NIH) – UP Manila; 5: Updating Pedagogies r in Philippine Education System Relevant to the Age of FIRE, By: DR. ALLAN B. DE GUZMAN, NRCP Member, Division of Governmental, Educational and International Policies, Professor of Pedagogy and Research, University of Santo Tomas, Zonal Representative, Teacher Education, Council (TEC). (MegaManila Science Journalists)